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Alberobello is situated upon two hills, once separated by a riverbed. On the eastern hill is the new town, with modern architectural features; on the other top, set out to west, the trulli are lined up in an urban conglomeration, subdivided into two districts: Monti and Aia Piccola, both National Monuments today World Heritage.

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The agricoltural landscape is characterized by a thick vegetation of almonds and olives, which thrive on karstic land.

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Since the birth of Alberobello, it is from the stratified calcareous rock that it has been taken the building materials, used for the trulli roof covering.
The history of this unusual town dates back to the second half of the XVI century, when, being a little feud under the control of the Acquaviva family, Counts of Conversano, it began to be filled up with farmers who made the (so called) Selva a fruitful land.

The Counts authorized the colonists to build dry dwellings, in order to get them easily pulled down in case of royal inspection; as a matter of fact, according to the 'Prammatica de Baronibus', the birth of an urban conglomeration required the payment of a tax. This trick allowed then to spare this unjust tax..

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It was the year 1797 and a group of brave people from Alberobello, tired of their precarious condition, went to Taranto to ask for help to king Ferdinando IV of Bourbons who listened and made a promise

On the 27th of may 1797, the king sent a Decree by means of which the little village became free. The trullo dwellings are dominated by the external use of sheets, the chiancole, which cover the conic roof and create a wonderful urban centre, unique in the world, that today everybody come and admire.

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